This documentation is for WSO2 API Manager 2.1.0 View documentation for the latest release.
Configuring the Proxy Server and the Load Balancer - API Manager 2.1.0 - WSO2 Documentation
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A load balancer or reverse proxy is required to map external traffic with ports and URLs that WSO2 API Manager (WSO2 API-M) uses internally. Follow the instructions below to configure load balancing together with reverse proxying.

Step 1 - Create a SSL certificate for the load balancer

This step is only applicable for a High Availablity (HA) setup where multiple nodes are fronted by a load balancer.

Create a SSL certificate for the load balancer using the following instructions.

  1. Create the Server Key.

    sudo openssl genrsa -des3 -out <key_name>.key 1024
  2. Submit the certificate signing request (CSR).

    sudo openssl req -new -key <key_name>.key -out server.csr
  3. Remove the password.

    sudo cp <key_name>.key <key_name>.key.org 
    sudo openssl rsa -in <key_name>.key.org -out <key_name>.key
  4. Sign your SSL Certificate.

    sudo openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in server.csr -signkey <key_name>.key -out <certificate_name>.crt
  5. Copy the key and certificate files that you generated in the above step to the /etc/nginx/ssl/ location.

Step 2 - Configure the load balancer/reverse proxy server

In the following instructions, you are instructed to use NGINX to handle the load balancing requirements.

Although the following section instructs you to use NGINX as the load balancer, you can use any load balancer in your deployment based on your preference.

 What is NGINX?

NGINX is an HTTP and reverse proxy server, a mail proxy server, and a generic TCP/UDP proxy server. For more information, see https://www.nginx.com/.

Carry out the following steps to configure the load balancer to front multiple nodes.

  1. Install NGINX in a server configured in your cluster.

    The NGINX version that you need to install varies based on the WSO2 API-M components that the load balancer is fronting.

    DeploymentAPI-M NodesLBReason
    Single all-in-one deploymentN/A NGINX Community This deployment does not need Sticky Sessions (Session Affinity).
    Active-active deployment using single all-in-one nodesN/ANGINX PlusThis deployment requires Sticky Sessions, but NGINX Community version does not support it. You can use ip_hash as the sticky algorithm.
    Distributed deploymentGateway with a single Gateway ManagerNGINX Community versionThe Gateway node in this deployment does not need Sticky Sessions.
    Gateway with multiple Gateway ManagersNGINX PlusThe Gateway Manager nodes require Sticky Sessions, but NGINX Community version does not support it. You can use ip_hash as the sticky algorithm. Sticky Sessions are needed for port 9443 in the Gateway, and not needed for the pass through ports in the Gateway (8243, 8280).
    Store, Publisher, and Key ManagerNGINX PlusRequires Sticky Sessions, but NGINX Community version does not support it. You can use ip_hash as the sticky algorithm.

    For more information on installing NGINX, see NGINX community version and NGINX Plus.

  2. Configure NGINX to direct the HTTP and HTTPs requests based on your deployment.

    1. Run the following command to identify the exact location of the <NGINX_HOME> directory. Inspect the output and identify the --prefix tag as it provides the location of the <NGINX_HOME> directory.

       nginx -V
    2. Update the ngnix.conf file with the required NGINX configuration given below. If not, you can create a file with the .conf suffix and copy it to the <NGINX_HOME>/conf.d directory.

  • All ports are default ports assuming no port offsets are used.
  • The key and the certificate for SSL is assumed to be at the <NGINX_HOME>/ssl/ location. The placeholders {cert_name} and {key_name} are the name of the certificate and key generated.
  • The directories used for access and error logs should be created if they do not exist.
  • The placeholder {node-ip-address} corresponds to the IP address of the backend node in which the WSO2 API-M server is running.
  • In the sample configuration given below, the hostname api.am.wso2.com is used to access all portals (publisher, store, admin, and carbon) and gw.am.wso2.com is used to invoke APIs. Only HTTPS is allowed.
upstream sslapi.am.wso2.com {
    server {node-ip-address}:9443;
}

upstream sslgw.am.wso2.com {
    server {node-ip-address}:8243;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name api.am.wso2.com;
    rewrite ^/(.*) https://api.am.wso2.com/$1 permanent;

}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name api.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://sslapi.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/am/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/am/https/error.log;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name gw.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://sslgw.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/gw/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/gw/https/error.log;
}
  • The placeholders {node-1-ip-address} and {node-2-ip-address} correspond to the IP addresses of the backend nodes in which APIM servers are running.
  • In the sample configuration given below, the hostname api.am.wso2.com is used to access all portals (publisher, store, admin and carbon) and gw.am.wso2.com is used to invoke APIs. Only HTTPS is allowed.
  • This configuration uses a session cookie to configure stickiness. However, if you are using Nginx community version, configuring sticky sessions based on session cookie is not supported. It is possible to use ip_hash method instead.

In an Active-Active deployment, It is mandatory to set up sticky sessions (session affinity) in the load balancers that front the Publisher and Store, and it is optional in the load balancer (if any) that fronts Key Manager or Gateway.

However, authentication via session ID fails when sticky sessions are disabled in the load balancers of Publisher and store.


upstream sslapi.am.wso2.com {
    server {node-1-ip-address}:9443;
    server {node-2-ip-address}:9443;
    #ip_hash;
    sticky learn create=$upstream_cookie_jsessionid
    	lookup=$cookie_jsessionid
    zone=client_sessions:1m;
}

upstream sslgw.am.wso2.com {
    server {node-1-ip-address}:8243;
    server {node-2-ip-address}:8243;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name api.am.wso2.com;
    rewrite ^/(.*) https://api.am.wso2.com/$1 permanent;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name api.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://sslapi.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/am/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/am/https/error.log;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name gw.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://sslgw.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/gw/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/gw/https/error.log;
}
  • The placeholder {gwm-ip-address} corresponds to the IP addresses of the backend nodes in which Gateway Manager server is running. Similarly, {gw-1-ip-address} and {gw-2-ip-address} are the nodes in which Gateway Workers are running.
  • In the sample configuration given below, the hostname mgtgw.am.wso2.com is used to access management console of the Gateway Manager and gw.am.wso2.com is used to invoke APIs. Only HTTPS is allowed.
  • If you are using multiple Gateway Managers when using a shared file system (e.g., NFS), then you need to enable sticky sessions.
upstream mgtgw.am.wso2.com {
    server {gwm-ip-address}:9443;
}

upstream sslgw.am.wso2.com {
    server {gw-1-ip-address}:8243;
    server {gw-2-ip-address}:8243;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name mgtgw.am.wso2.com;
    rewrite ^/(.*) https://mgtgw.am.wso2.com/$1 permanent;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name mgtgw.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://mgtgw.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/gwm/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/gwm/https/error.log;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name gw.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://sslgw.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/gw/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/gw/https/error.log;
}
  • The placeholders {publisher-1-ip-address} and {publisher-2-ip-address} correspond to the IP addresses of the backend nodes in which APIM Publishers are running.
  • In the sample configuration given below, the hostname publisher.am.wso2.com is used to access publisher portal. Only HTTPS is allowed.
  • This configuration uses a session cookie to configure stickiness. However, if you are using Nginx community version, configuring sticky sessions based on session cookie is not supported. It is possible to use the ip_hash method instead.
upstream publisher.am.wso2.com {
    server {publisher-1-ip-address}:9443;
    server {publisher-2-ip-address}:9443;
    #ip_hash;
    sticky learn create=$upstream_cookie_jsessionid
    	lookup=$cookie_jsessionid
    zone=client_sessions:1m;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name publisher.am.wso2.com;
    rewrite ^/(.*) https://publisher.am.wso2.com/$1 permanent;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name publisher.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://publisher.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/publisher/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/publisher/https/error.log;
}
  • The placeholders {store-1-ip-address} and {store-2-ip-address} correspond to the IP addresses of the backend nodes in which APIM Stores are running.
  • In the sample configuration given below, the hostname store.am.wso2.com is used to access Publisher portal. Only HTTPS is allowed.
  • This configuration uses a session cookie to configure stickiness. However, if you are using Nginx community version, configuring sticky sessions based on session cookie is not supported. It is possible to use ip_hash method instead.
upstream store.am.wso2.com {
    server {store-1-ip-address}:9443;
    server {store-2-ip-address}:9443;
    #ip_hash;
    sticky learn create=$upstream_cookie_jsessionid
    	lookup=$cookie_jsessionid
    zone=client_sessions:1m;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name store.am.wso2.com;
    rewrite ^/(.*) https://store.am.wso2.com/$1 permanent;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name store.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://publisher.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/store/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/logs/store/https/error.log;
}
  • The placeholders {km-1-ip-address} and {km-2-ip-address} correspond to the IP addresses of the backend nodes in which APIM Key Managers are running.
  • In the sample configuration given below, the hostname km.am.wso2.com is used to access Key Manager. Only HTTPS is allowed.
  • This configuration uses a session cookie to configure stickiness. However, if you are using Nginx community version, configuring sticky sessions based on session cookie is not supported. It is possible to use ip_hash method instead.
upstream km.am.wso2.com {
    server {km-1-ip-address}:9443;
    server {km-2-ip-address}:9443;
    #ip_hash;
    sticky learn create=$upstream_cookie_jsessionid
    	lookup=$cookie_jsessionid
    zone=client_sessions:1m;
}

server {
    listen 80;
    server_name km.am.wso2.com;
    rewrite ^/(.*) https://km.am.wso2.com/$1 permanent;
}

server {
    listen 443;
    server_name km.am.wso2.com;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Port 443;
    ssl on;
    ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/ssl/{cert_name};
    ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/ssl/{key_name};
    location / {
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Host $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-Server $host;
               proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
               proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
               proxy_read_timeout 5m;
               proxy_send_timeout 5m;
               proxy_pass https://km.am.wso2.com;
        }

        access_log /etc/nginx/log/km/https/access.log;
        error_log /etc/nginx/log/km/https/error.log;
}


The ports and URLs that are used internally by API Manager are given below:

Usage

URL

Port

HTTPS Servlet (UI Consoles)

localhost

9443

NIO transport (HTTP API Traffic)

localhost

8280

NIO transport (HTTPS API Traffic)

localhost

8243


Restart the NGINX server:

sudo service nginx restart

You do not need to restart the server if you are simply making a modification to the VHost file. The following command is sufficient in such cases.

sudo service nginx reload


Step 3 - Configure the reverse proxy settings in the product

  • This step is only relevant to the Store and Publisher nodes when fronting multiple nodes with a load balancer.
  • These configurations need to be added in all the Publisher and Store nodes.

When using a load balancer, you need to configure Reverse Proxy for the API Store URL, API Publisher URL, Admin Portal URL, and whatever other URLs that you are working with for the portals to be able to work with the Proxy Server configuration.

  1. Update the API Store node.
    Update the following configuration in the <API-M_HOME>\repository\deployment\server\jaggeryapps\store\site\conf\site.json file as shown below, to configure reverse proxying for the API Store.

    "reverseProxy" : {
            "enabled" : true,    // values true , false , "auto" - will look for  X-Forwarded-* headers
            "host" : "<hostname>", // If reverse proxy do not have a domain name use IP
            "context":"/store",
          //"regContext":"" // Use only if different path is used for registry
        }
  2. Update the API Publisher node.

    1. Configure reverse proxying for the API Publisher.
      Update the following configuration in the <API-M_HOME>\repository\deployment\server\jaggeryapps\publisher\site\conf\site.json file as shown below: 

      "reverseProxy" : {
              "enabled" : true,    // values true , false , "auto" - will look for  X-Forwarded-* headers
              "host" : "<hostname>", // If reverse proxy do not have a domain name use IP
              "context":"/publisher",
            //"regContext":"" // Use only if different path is used for registry
          }
    2. Configure reverse proxying for the Admin Portal.
      Update the following configuration in the <API-M_HOME>\repository\deployment\server\jaggeryapps\admin\site\conf\site.json file as shown below.

      "reverseProxy" : {
              "enabled" : true,    // values true , false , "auto" - will look for  X-Forwarded-* headers
              "host" : "<hostname>", // If reverse proxy do not have a domain name use IP
              "context":"/admin",
            //"regContext":"" // Use only if different path is used for registry
          },
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