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The Java Message Service (JMS) transport of the WSO2 Enterprise Integrator (WSO2 EI) allows you to easily send and receive messages to queues and topics of any JMS service that implements the JMS specification. The following sections describe how you can tune the JMS transport of WSO2 EI for better performance.

Increase the maximum number of JMS proxies

If you create several JMS proxy services in WSO2 EI, you will see a message similar to the following:

WARN - JMSListener Polling tasks on destination : JMStoHTTPStockQuoteProxy18 of type queue for service JMStoHTTPStockQuoteProxy18 have not yet started after 3 seconds ..

This issue occurs when you do not have enough threads available to consume messages from JMS queues. The maximum number of concurrent consumers (that is, the number of JMS proxies) that can be deployed is limited by the base transport worker pool that is used by the JMS transport. You can configure the size of this worker pool using the system properties lst_t_core and lst_t_max. Note that increasing these values will also increase the memory consumption, because the worker pool will allocate more resources.

Similarly, you can configure the current number and the anticipated number of outbound JMS proxies using the system properties snd_t_core and snd_t_max.

To adjust the values of these properties, you can modify the server startup script if you want to increase the available threads for NHTTP and JMS transports (requires more memory), or create a file if you want to increase the available threads just for the JMS transport. Both approaches are described below.

To increase the threads for NHTTP and JMS transports
  1. Open the or integrator.bat file in your <EI_HOME>/bin directory for editing.
  2. Change the values of the properties as follows: 

    If you do not have the following properties in the or integrator.bat files, add them with the given values.

    • -Dlst_t_core=200

      The defined values is applied as a System Property.

    • -Dlst_t_max=250
    • -Dsnd_t_core=200
    • -Dsnd_t_max=250
To increase the threads for just the JMS transport
  1. Create a file named inside <EI_HOME>/conf with the following properties:
    • lst_t_core=200

    • lst_t_max=250

    • snd_t_core=200

    • snd_t_max=250

      Determine a suitable value for lst_t_core and snd_t_core

      Make sure that the above mentioned recommended values per server satisfy the following calculation.

      lst_t_core >  Total number of consumers + 20
      lst_t_core < lst_t_max
      snd_t_core > Total number of consumers + 20
      snd_t_core < snd_t_max
        • Total number of consumers = transport.jms.MaxConcurrentConsumers * Number of JMS proxies
        • 20 threads have been added as a buffer.
        • Default value for lst_t_core and snd_t_core is 20.
        • If you do not specify a value for lst_t_core and snd_t_core, the default values are applied.

      If the above values that you derived exceed the recommended values, make sure that your server has the necessary resources to handle the defined thread pool size efficiently.

Configuring JMS Listener

You can increase the JMS listener performance by

  1. Using concurrent consumers
  2. Enabling caching

Using concurrent consumers

Concurrent consumers is the minimum number of threads for message consuming. If there are more messages to be consumed while the running threads are busy, then additional threads are started until the total number of threads reaches the value of the maximum number of concurrent consumers (ie., MaxConcurrentConsumers). The maximum number of concurrent consumers (or the number of JMS proxies) that can be deployed is limited by the base transport worker pool that is used by the JMS transport. The size of this worker pool can be configured via the system property 'lst_t_core' and 'lst_t_max' as described above. The number of concurrent producers are generally limited by the Synapse core worker pool.


Concurrent consumers are only applicable to JMS queues not for JMS topics.

To increase the JMS listener performance

Add the following parameters to the JMS listener configuration of the <EI_HOME>/conf/axis2/axis2.xml file:

<parameter name="transport.jms.ConcurrentConsumers" locked="false">50</parameter> 
<parameter name="transport.jms.MaxConcurrentConsumers" locked="false">50</parameter>


  • transport.jms.ConcurrentConsumers: the concurrent threads that need to be started to consume messages when polling.
  • transport.jms.MaxConcurrentConsumers: the maximum number of concurrent threads to use during polling.

If you set t he locked property to true , the JMS proxy creates only one listener thread at a given time. If you set it to false, then it creates multiple listener threads from a single proxy to consume messages concurrently.

Enable caching

Add the following parameter to the JMS listener configuration of the  <EI_HOME>/conf/axis2/axis2.xml file to enable caching:

<parameter name="transport.jms.CacheLevel">consumer</parameter>

The possible values for the cache level are none, auto, connection, session and consumer. Out of the possible values, consumer is the highest level that provides maximum performance.

After adding concurrency consumers and cache level, your complete configuration would be as follows:

Sample JMS listener configuration with concurrent consumers and caching
<transportReceiver name="jms" class="org.apache.axis2.transport.jms.JMSListener"> 
<parameter name="myQueueConnectionFactory" locked="false"> 
<parameter name="java.naming.factory.initial" locked="false">org.apache.activemq.jndi.ActiveMQInitialContextFactory</parameter> 
<parameter name="java.naming.provider.url" locked="false">tcp://localhost:61616</parameter> 
<parameter name="transport.jms.ConnectionFactoryJNDIName" locked="false">QueueConnectionFactory</parameter> 
<parameter name="transport.jms.ConnectionFactoryType" locked="false">queue</parameter> 
<parameter name="transport.jms.ConcurrentConsumers" locked="false">50</parameter> 
<parameter name="transport.jms.MaxConcurrentConsumers" locked="false">50</parameter> 
<parameter name="transport.jms.CacheLevel">consumer</parameter> 

Configuring JMS Sender

Enabling caching

Add the following parameter to the JMS sender configuration of the <EI_HOME>/conf/axis2/axis2.xml file:

<parameter name="transport.jms.CacheLevel">producer</parameter>

The possible values for the cache level are noneautoconnection,session and producer. Out of the possible values, producer is the highest level that provides maximum performance.

When using producer as the cache level, ensure to add the JMS destination parameter to avoid the following error:

INFO - AxisEngine [MessageContext: logID=2eabe85aeeb3bb62c26bb46d21b11b087ebf1e5e0b350839] JMSCC0029: A destination must be specified when sending from  this   producer.

Remove ClientApiNonBlocking when sending messages via JMS

By default, Axis2 spawns a new thread to handle each outgoing message. To change this behavior, you need to remove the ClientApiNonBlocking property from the message.


Removal of this property can be vital when queuing transports like JMS are involved.

To remove the ClientApiNonBlocking property

Add the following parameter to the configuration:

<property name="ClientApiNonBlocking" action="remove" scope="axis2"/>

Troubleshooting JMS scenarios

The following sections will help you to resolve common problems encountered in JMS integration scenarios with WSO2 Enterprise Integrator (WSO2 EI).

Handling ClassNotFoundExceptions and NoClassDefFoundExceptions

Check if you have deployed all the required client libraries. The missing class should be available in one of the jar files deployed in <EI_HOME>/lib directory.   

WSO2 EI comes with geronimo-jms library, which contains the javax.jms packages. Therefore, you do not have to deploy them again.  

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HTTP header conversion

When forwarding HTTP traffic to a JMS queue using WSO2 EI, you might get an error similar to the one given below.   

ERROR JMSSender Error creating a JMS message from the axis message context
javax.jms.MessageFormatException: MQJMS1058: Invalid message property name: Content-Type

This exception is specific to the JMS broker used, and is  thrown by the JMS client libraries used to connect with the JMS broker. 
The incoming HTTP message contains a bunch of HTTP headers that have the ‘-‘ character. Some noticeable examples are Content-length and Transfer-encoding headers. When WSO2 EI forwards a message over JMS, it sets the headers of the incoming message to the outgoing JMS message as JMS properties. But, according to the JMS specification, the ‘-‘ character is prohibited in JMS property names. Some JMS brokers like ActiveMQ do not check this specifically, in which case there will not be any issues. But some brokers do and they throw exceptions.  

The solution is to simply remove the problematic HTTP headers from the message before delivering it over JMS. You can use the property mediator as follows to achieve this:   

<property action="remove" name="Content-Length" scope="transport">
<property action="remove" name="Accept-Encoding" scope="transport">
<property action="remove" name="User-Agent" scope="transport">
<property action="remove" name="Content-Type" scope="transport"> 

Alternatively, you can use the  transport.jms.MessagePropertyHyphens parameter to handle hyphenated properties, instead of handling them as described above. For more information on this parameter, see the transport.jms.MessagePropertyHyphens parameter description and possible values.

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JMS property data type mismatch

When the WSO2 EI attempts to forward a message over JMS, there are instances that the client libraries throw an exception saying the data type of a particular message property is invalid. 
This problem occurs when the developer uses the property mediator to manipulate property values set on the message. Certain implementations of JMS have data type restrictions on properties. But the property mediator always sets property values as strings.

The solution is to revise the mediation sequences and avoid manipulating property values containing non-string values. If you want to set a non-string property value, write a simple custom mediator. Instructions are given in section Creating Custom Mediators .   For an example, to set a property named foo with integer value 12345, use the property mediator as follows and set the type attribute to INTEGER.  If the type attribute of the property is not specifically set, it will be assigned to String by default.    

<property name="foo" value="12345" type="INTEGER" scope="transport/"> 

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Too-many-threads and out-of-memory issues

  With some JMS brokers, WSO2 EI tends to spawn new worker threads indefinitely until it runs out of memory and crashes. This problem is caused by a bug in the underlying Axis2 engine. A simple workaround to this problem is to engage the property mediator of the  mediation sequence  as follows:   

<property action="remove" name="transportNonBlocking" scope="axis2"> 

This prevents WSO2 EI from creating new worker threads indefinitely. You can use a jconsole like  JMX client to  monitor the active threads and memory consumption of WSO2 EI.

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JMSUtils cannot locate destination

If your topic or queue name contains the termination characters ":" or "=", JMSUtils will not be able to find the topic/queue and will give you the warning "JMSUtils cannot locate destination". (For more information, see For example, if the topic name is my::topic, the following configuration will not work, because the topic name will be parsed as my instead of my::topic:

<address uri="jms:/my::topic?transport.jms.ConnectionFactoryJNDIName=QueueConnectionFactory&amp;java.naming.factory.initial=org.wso2.andes.jndi.PropertiesFileInitialContextFactory&amp;java.naming.provider.url=repository/conf/;transport.jms.DestinationType=topic"/>

To avoid this issue, you can create a key-value pair in the file that maps the topic/queue name to a key that either escapes these characters with a backslash (\) or does not contain ":" or "=". For example:\:\:topic = my::topic


topic.myTopic = my::topic

You can then use this key in the proxy service as follows:

<address uri="jms:/my\:\:topic ?transport.jms.ConnectionFactoryJNDIName=TopicConnectionFactory&amp;java.naming.factory.initial=org.wso2.andes.jndi.PropertiesFileInitialContextFactory&amp;java.naming.provider.url=repository/conf/;transport.jms.DestinationType=topic"/>

If you do not want to use the JNDI properties file, you can define the key-value pair right in the proxy configuration:

<address uri="jms:/ my\:\:topic?transport.jms.ConnectionFactoryJNDIName=TopicConnectionFactory&amp;java.naming.factory.initial=org.wso2.andes.jndi.PropertiesFileInitialContextFactory&amp;\:\:topic =my  ::topic &amp;java.naming.provider.url=repository/conf/;transport.jms.DestinationType=topic"/>

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