This documentation is for WSO2 Enterprise Service Bus version 5.0.0. For the latest ESB, view the latest WSO2 Enterprise Integrator documentation.

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WSO2 ESB's HTTP transport can be used to handle blocking and non-blocking calls. This section describes how you can tune the HTTP transport of WSO2 ESB for better performance.

Improving the non-blocking invocation performance

WSO2 ESB supports two non-blocking transports, namely the passthrough transport and the nhttp transport. The passthrough transport is the default transport of the ESB, but you can set the NHTTP transport as the default transport by renaming the <ESB_Server>/repository/conf/axis2/axis2_nhttp.xml file to axis2.xml.

You can improve the non-blocking invocation performance by either configuring properties related to the HTTP Pass Through transport or configuring properties related to the NHTTP transport, based on which transport you are using as the default ESB transport in your production environment.

Configuring passthru-http.properties

You can configure the following properties as required in the <ESB_Home>/repository/conf/passthru-http.properties file:

PropertyDescriptionDefault Value

worker_pool_size_core

WSO2 ESB uses a thread pool executor to create threads and handle incoming requests. This parameter controls the number of core threads used by the executor pool. If you increase this parameter value, the number of requests received that can be processed by the ESB increases, hence, the throughput also increases.400

worker_pool_size_max

This is the maximum number of threads in the worker thread pool. Specifying a maximum limit avoids performance degradation that can occur due to context switching. If the specified value is reached, you will see the error “SYSTEM ALERT - HttpServerWorker threads were in BLOCKED state during last minute”. This can occur due to an extraordinarily high number of requests sent at a time when all the threads in the pool are busy, and the maximum number of threads is already reached.500

http.socket.timeout

This is the maximum period of inactivity between two consecutive data packets, specified in milliseconds.120000

worker_thread_keepalive_sec

This defines the keep-alive time for extra threads in the worker pool. The value specified here should be less than the socket timeout value. Once this time has elapsed for an extra thread, it will be destroyed. The purpose of this parameter is to optimize the usage of resources by avoiding wastage that results by having unutilized extra threads.60

worker_pool_queue_length

This defines the length of the queue that is used to hold runnable tasks to be executed by the worker pool. The thread pool starts queuing jobs when all the existing threads are busy, and the pool has reached the maximum number of threads. The value for this parameter should be -1 to use an unbound queue. If a bound queue is used and the queue gets filled to its capacity, any further attempts to submit jobs fail causing some messages to be dropped by Synapse.-1

io_threads_per_reactor

This defines the number of IO dispatcher threads used per reactor. The value specified should not exceed the number of cores in the server.The default value is equal to number of cores in the server.

io_buffer_size

This is the value of the memory buffer allocated when reading data into the memory from the underlying socket/file channels. You should leave this property set to the default value.16384

http.max.connection.per.host.port

This defines the maximum number of connections allowed per host port.32767

http.socket.reuseaddr

If this parameter is set to true, it is possible to open another socket on the same port as the socket that is currently used by the ESB server to listen to connections. This is useful when recovering from a crash. In such instances, if the socket is not properly closed, a new socket can be opened to listen to connections.true

http.socket.buffer-size

This is used to configure the SessionInputBuffer size of http core. The SessionInputBuffer is used to fill data that is read from the OS socket. This parameter does not affect the OS socket buffer size.8192

http.block_service_list

If this parameter is set to true, all services deployed to WSO2 ESB cannot be accessed via the http(s):<esb>:8280/services/ URL.true
http.user.agent.preserveIf this parameter is set to true, the user-agent HTTP header of messages passing through the ESB is preserved and printed in the outgoing message.false

http.headers.preserve

This parameter allows you to specify the header field/s of messages passing through the ESB that need to be preserved and printed in the outgoing message such as Location, Keep-Alive, Date, Server, User-Agent and Host. E.g., http.headers.preserve = Location, Date, Server.

When uploading files using this property if you run into any header dropping issues such as content type (or any other headers) not passing to back end or media type (charset) being missing at the Pass Through Transport level, add the http.headers.preserve = Content-Type property to the <ESB_HOME>/repository/conf/passthru-http.properties file and restart the server.

When you add the http.headers.preserve=Content-Length property, if the client sends a chunked request (with the Transfer-Encoding: chunked header), the ESB forwards it to the backend. Else, if the client sends a request with the Content-Length header, ESB forwards that header to the backend. Thus, if you are changing the message payload before sending it to the backend, the request will fail as the content length you sent is not the actual content length of the message.

The main difference between using this property and using the FORCE_HTTP_CONTENT_LENGTH and COPY_CONTENT_LENGTH_FROM_INCOMING properties together in an API/proxy service is that http.headers.preserve=Content-Length property applies at a global (server) level, whereas, you can use the other two properties to have this behaviour locally in the API/proxy service.
Content-Type

http.connection.disable.keepalive

If this parameter is set to true, the HTTP connections with the back end service are closed soon after the request is served. It is recommended to set this property to false so that the ESB does not have to create a new connection every time it sends a request to a back end service. However, you may need to close connections after they are used if the back end service does not provide sufficient support for keep alive connections.false
Configuring nhttp.properties

You can configure the NHTTP properties as required in the <ESB_Home>/repository/conf/nhttp.properties file:

  • Following are the properties used by the non-blocking HTTP transport:
     

    PropertyDescriptionDefault Value

    http.socket.timeout.receiver

    This is the maximum period of inactivity between two consecutive data packets on the transport listener side. This is the socket timeout value for connection between the client and the ESB server. 60000

    http.socket.timeout.sender

    This is the maximum period of inactivity between two consecutive data packets for the transport sender side. This is the socket timeout value for connection between the ESB server and the backend server.60000

    nhttp_buffer_size

    This is the size of the buffer through which data passes when receiving/transmitting NHTTP requests. 8192

    http.tcp.nodelay

    This determines whether Nagle's algorithm (for improving the efficiency of TCP/IP by reducing the number of packets sent over the network) is used. Use the value 0 to enable this algorithm and the value 1 to disable it. The algorithm should be enabled if you need to reduce bandwidth consumption.1

    http.connection.stalecheck

    This determines whether stale connection check is used. Use the value 0 to enable stale connection check and the value 1 to disable it. When this parameter is enabled, connections that are no longer used are identified and disabled before each request execution. Stale connection check should be disabled when performing critical operations.0

    http.block_service_list

    If this parameter is set to true, all services deployed to WSO2 ESB cannot be viewed via the http(s):<esb>:8280/services/ URL.false
    http.headers.preserveThis parameter allows you to specify the header field/s of messages passing through the ESB that need to be preserved and printed in the outgoing message (e.g., http.headers.preserve = Location, Date, Server ). Supported header fields are: Date, Server and User-Agent.  
  • Following are the HTTP sender thread pool properties:

    Parameter NameDescriptionDefault Value
    snd_t_coreTransport listener worker pool's initial thread count.20
    snd_t_maxTransport listener worker pool's maximum thread count. Once this limit is reached and all the threads in the pool are busy, they will be in a BLOCKED state. In such situations an increase in the number of messages would fire the error  SYSTEM ALERT - HttpServerWorker threads were in BLOCKED state during last minute.100
    snd_alive_secListener-side keep-alive seconds.5
    snd_qlenThe listener queue length.-1
    snd_io_threadsListener-side IO workers.2

    When there is an increased load, it is recommended to increase the number of threads mentioned in the properties above to balance it.

     

  • Following are the HTTP listener thread pool properties:

    Note

    Listener-side properties generally have the same values as the sender-side properties.

    PropertyDescriptionDefault Value
    lst_t_core
    Transport sender worker pool's initial thread count.20
    lst_t_maxTransport sender worker pool's maximum thread count. Once this limit is reached and all the threads in the pool are busy, they will be in a BLOCKED state. In such situations an increase in the number of messages would fire the error   SYSTEM ALERT - HttpServerWorker threads were in BLOCKED state during last minute .100
    lst_alive_secSender-side keep-alive seconds.5
    lst_qlenThe sender queue length.-1
    lst_io_threadsSender-side IO workers.2
  • Following is a property for AIX based deployment:

    PropertyDescriptionDefault Value
    http.nio.interest-ops-queueingDetermines whether interestOps() queueing is enabled for the I/O reactors.true

Improving the blocking invocation performance

The Callout mediator as well as the Call mediator in blocking mode uses the axis2 CommonsHTTPTransportSender internally to invoke services. It uses the MultiThreadedHttpConnectionManager to handle connections, but in default configuration it only allows two simultaneous connections per host. So if there are more than two requests per host, the requests have to wait until a connection is available. Therefore if the backend service is slow, many requests have to wait until a connection is available from the MultiThreadedHttpConnectionManager.This can lead to a significant degrade in the performance of the ESB.

In order to overcome this issue you can edit the CommonsHTTPTransportSender configuration in the <ESB_HOME>/repository/conf/axis2/axis2_blocking_client.xml file, and increase the value of the defaultMaxConnectionsPerHost parameter.

For example, if you need to set 100 simultaneous connections per second, you can set the value of the defaultMaxConnectionsPerHost parameter as follows:

<transportsender class="org.apache.axis2.transport.http.CommonsHTTPTransportSender" name="http">
        <parameter name="PROTOCOL">HTTP/1.1</parameter>
        <parameter name="Transfer-Encoding">chunked</parameter>
        <parameter name="cacheHttpClient">true</parameter>
        <parameter name="defaultMaxConnectionsPerHost">100</parameter>
</transportsender>
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