The following sections describe the impact of a brute force attack and the approaches you can use to mitigate it.
How can brute force attacks be harmful?
Brute force attacks are a popular mechanism to cracking passwords. It uses automated software to generate a large number of possible guesses to the value of the required data (in this case, to guess the password) and works by trial and error. A brute force cracking application proceeds through all possible combinations of legal characters in a sequence. For example, several HTTP brute-force tools can relay requests through many different open proxy servers. As each of the requests appear to come from a different IP address, simply blocking the IP address will not work against these attacks.
Mitigating brute force attacks
Setting up the system to prompt the password recovery process after a few failed attempts so that the user has to provide answers to secret questions, can mitigate this risk. However, similiar to using these tools to guess a user's credentials, it can also be used to guess answers to secret questions. To further mitigate this attack, you can use the following approaches:
- Lock the user account after a certain number of failed attempts, for a period of time. For instructions on setting this up, see User Account Locking.
- Present a reCaptcha after a certain number of failed attempts before trying again. A reCaptcha can determine if the system is dealing with a human or an automation. For instructions on setting this up, see Setting Up ReCaptcha.