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Token APIs can be used to generate and renew user access tokens. Users need access tokens to identify and invoke APIs subscribed under an application. User tokens are passed in the HTTP header when invoking APIs. Let's take a look at how to generate, authorize and renew access tokens.

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Generating user tokens
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Generating
Generating

You can use the Token API to invoke an API through a third-party application like a mobile app. The Token API comes bundled with the API Manager by default. It requires the base64 encoded string of the comsumer-key:consumer-secret combination. 

For instructions to generate an application-level access token from the API Store, see Working with Access Tokens.

Prerequisites

You need the following before using the Token API to generate a user token.

  • A valid user account in the API Store. See Signing up to API Store.
  • A valid consumer key and consumer secret. Initially, these keys must be generated through the management console by clicking the Generate link on My Subscriptions page. You can find more details in Working with Access Tokens.
  • A running API Gateway instance (typically an API Manager instance should be running). For instruction on API Gateway, refer to section Architecture Components.

Invoking Token API to generate user tokens 
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GenerateToken
GenerateToken
 

  1. Combine the consumer key and consumer secret keys in the format consumer-key:consumer-secret and encode the combined string using base64. Encoding to base64 can be done using the URL: http://base64encode.org.
    Here's an example consumer key and secret combination : wU62DjlyDBnq87GlBwplfqvmAbAa:ksdSdoefDDP7wpaElfqvmjDue.
  2. Access the Token API by using a REST client such as the WSO2 REST Client or Curl, with the following parameters.
    • Assuming that both the client and the API Gateway are run on the same server, the token API url is https://localhost:8243/token
    • payload - "grant_type=password&username=<username>&password=<password>&scope=PRODUCTION". Replace the <username> and <password> values as appropriate.
    • headers - Authorization: Basic <base64 encoded string>, Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Replace the <base64 encoded string> as appropriate.          

    For example, use the following cURL command to access the Token API. It generates two tokens as an access token and a refresh token. You can use the refresh token at the time a token is renewed .

    Code Block
    curl -k -d "grant_type=password&username=<username>&password=<password>&scope=PRODUCTION" -H "Authorization: Basic SVpzSWk2SERiQjVlOFZLZFpBblVpX2ZaM2Y4YTpHbTBiSjZvV1Y4ZkM1T1FMTGxDNmpzbEFDVzhh, Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhost:8243/token
    Note

    The Token API endpoint is specified in the <APIM_HOME>/repository/deployment/server/synapse-configs/default/api/_TokenAPI_.xml file (note that _LoginAPI_.xml is the deprecated API).

    When running the server with ports different to the default (i.e., 9443), you must update the endpoints defined inside the default APIs accordingly (_TokenAPI_.xml, _LoginAPI_.xml etc.). See Changing the Default Ports with Offset.

    Info
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    User access tokens have a fixed expiration time, which is set to 60 minutes by default. Before deploying the API manager to users, extend the default expiration time by editing the <AccessTokenDefaultValidityPeriod> tag in <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/identity.xml.

    When a user access token expires, the user can try regenerating the token as explained in the Renew user tokens section.

Generating authorization code

You can use the /authorize endpoint for the authorization code grant type of OAuth2.0. As this is a redirection-based flow, the client must be capable of interacting with the resource owner's user-agent (typically a Web browser) and receiving incoming requests (via redirection) from the authorization server.

The client initiates the flow by directing the resource owner's user-agent to the authorization endpoint. It includes the client identifier, response_type, requested scope, and a redirection URI to which the authorization server sends the user-agent back after granting access. The authorization server authenticates the resource owner (via the user-agent) and establishes whether the resource owner granted or denied the client's access request. Assuming the resource owner grants access, the authorization server then redirects the user-agent back to the client using the redirection URI provided earlier. The redirection URI includes an authorization code.

The client then requests an access token from the authorization server's /token endpoint by including the authorization code received in the previous step. When making the request, the client authenticates with the authorization server. It then includes the redirection URI used to obtain the authorization code for verification. The authorization server authenticates the client, validates the authorization code, and ensures that the redirection URI matches the URI used to redirect the client from the /authorize endpoint in the previous response. If valid, the authorization server responds back with an access token and, optionally, a refresh token.

Assuming that both the client and the API Gateway are run on the same server, the Authorization API url is https://localhost:8243/authorize.

  • query component - response_type=code&client_id=<consumer_key>&scope=PRODUCTION&redirect_uri=<application_callback_url>
  • headers - Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

For example, the client directs the user-agent to make the following HTTP request using TLS.

Code Block
GET
/authorize?response_type=code&client_id=wU62DjlyDBnq87GlBwplfqvmAbAa&scope=PRODUCTION&redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb
HTTP/1.1 
Host: server.example.com 
Content-Type:
application/x-www-form-urlencoded 

The authorization server redirects the user-agent by sending the following HTTP response:

Code Block
HTTP/1.1 302 Found 
Location:
https://client.example.com/cb?code=SplxlOBeZQQYbYS6WxSbIA

Now the client makes the following HTTP request using TLS to the /token endpoint.

Code Block
POST /token HTTP/1.1 
Host: server.example.com 
Authorization: Basic
SVpzSWk2SERiQjVlOFZLZFpBblVpX2ZaM2Y4YTpHbTBiSjZvV1Y4ZkM1T1FMTGxDNmpzbEFDVzhh
Content-Type:
application/x-www-form-urlencoded 
grant_type=authorization_code&code=SplxlOBeZQQYbYS6WxSbIA&redirect_uri=https%3A%2F%2Fclient%2Eexample%2Ecom%2Fcb

The /token endpoint responds in the same way like in password grant type.

Renewing user tokens
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Renewing
Renewing

After an access token is generated, sometimes you might have to refresh or renew the old token due to expiration or security concerns. This can be done by issuing a REST call to the Token API through a REST client such as the WSO2 REST Client or Curl, with the following parameters.

  • Assuming that both the client and the API Gateway are run on the same server, the Token API URL is https://localhost:8243/token.
  • payload - "grant_type=refresh_token&refresh_token=<retoken>&scope=PRODUCTION". Replace the <retoken> value with the refresh token generated in the previous section .
  • headers - Authorization :Basic <base64 encoded string>, Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Replace <base64 encoded string> as appropriate.          

For example, the following cURL command can be used to access the Token API.

Code Block
curl -k -d "grant_type=refresh_token&refresh_token=<retoken>&scope=PRODUCTION" -H "Authorization: Basic SVpzSWk2SERiQjVlOFZLZFpBblVpX2ZaM2Y4YTpHbTBiSjZvV1Y4ZkM1T1FMTGxDNmpzbEFDVzhh, Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhost:8243/token

The REST message will grant the user a renewed user token.

Revoking access tokens

After issuing an access token, a user or an admin can revoke it in case of theft or a security violation. You can do this by calling Revoke API using a utility like cURL. The Revoke API's endpoint URL is http://localhost:8280/revoke.

Parameters required to invoke this API are as follows:

  • The token to be revoked
  • Consumer key and consumer secret key. Must be encoded using Base64 algorithm

For example, curl -k -d "token=<ACCESS_TOKEN_TO_BE_REVOKED>" -H "Authorization: Basic Base64Encoded(Consumer key:consumer secret)" http://localhost:8280/revoke

Exchanging SAML2 bearer tokens with OAuth2

SAML 2.0 is an XML-based protocol . It uses security tokens containing assertions to pass information about an enduser between a SAML authority and a SAML consumer. A SAML authority is an identity provider (IDP) and a SAML consumer is a service provider (SP).

A lot of enterprise applications use SAML2 to engage a third-party identity provider to grant access to systems that are only authenticated against the enterprise application. These enterprise applications might need to consume OAuth-protected resources through APIs, after validating them against an OAuth2.0 authentication server. However, an enterprise application that already has a working SAML2.0 based SSO infrastructure between itself and the IDP prefers to use the existing trust relationship, even if the OAuth authorization server is entirely different from the IDP. The SAML2 Bearer Assertion Profile for OAuth2.0 helps leverage this existing trust relationship by presenting the SAML2.0 token to the authorization server and exchanging it to an OAuth2.0 access token.

WSO2 API Manager provides SAML2 Bearer Assertion Profile Support with the OAuth 2.0 feature. WSO2 Identity Server (version 4.5.0 onwards) or any other SAML2 Identity provider can act as an identity service provider for the systems enabled with SSO. WSO2 API Manager acts as the OAuth authorization server. This way, an enterprise application can exchange the SAML2.0 bearer token that it retrieves when authenticating against an IDP (e.g., WSO2 Identity Server) with an OAuth2.0 access token from an OAuth authorization server (e.g., WSO2 API Manager). It can then use the OAuth2 token in API invocations.

The diagram below depicts this scenario:

   
The scenarios of the above diagram are explained below:

Scenario [1]: User initiates login call to an enterprise application .

Scenario [2]:

  • As the application is a SAML SP, it redirects the user to the SAML2.0 IDP to log in.
  • The user provides credentials at the IDP and is redirected back to SP with a SAML2.0 token signed by the IDP.
  • The SP verifies the token and logs the user to the application.
  • The SAML 2.0 token is stored in the user's session by the SP.  

Scenario [3]:

  • The enterprise application (SP) wants to access an OAuth2 protected API resource through WSO2 API Manager.
  • The application makes a request to the API Manager to exchange the SAML2 bearer token for an OAuth2.0 access token.
  • The API Manager validates the assertion and returns the access token.

Scenario [4]: User does API invocations through the API Manager by setting it as an Authorization header with the returned OAuth2 access token.

Let's see how to configure the token exchange.

Prerequisites

  • A signed SAML2 token (encoded assertion value), which you retrieve when authenticating against a SAML2 IDP. With the authentication request, you must pass attributes such as SAML2 issuer name, token endpoint and the restricted audience. To specify those attributes,

    • Log in to the management console (https://localhost:9443/carbon) using admin/admin credentials and select Trusted  Identity Providers sub menu from the Configure menu.

    • Provide the following values in the page that opens:
      • Identity Provider Name: Enter a unique name for idP
      • Identity Provider Issuer : The SAML2 issuer name specified when generating assertion token, which contains the unique identifier of the IDP
      • Identity Provider Url : OAuth endpoint URL to which SAML2.0 assertion is delivered. It is defined with SAML2 SubjectConfirmationData when generating SAML2.0 assertion token.
      • Identity Provider Public Certificate:  Upload Identity Provider public certificate
      • Identity Provider Audience : The audience to which the SAML2 assertion is restricted. Its URI is used when generating SAML2.0 assertion token
  • A valid user account in the API Store. See Signing up to API Store. 
  • A valid consumer key and consumer secret. Initially, these keys must be generated through the management console by clicking the Generate link on My Subscriptions page. For more information, see Working with Access Tokens.
  • A running API Gateway instance. See information on API Gateway in Architecture Components.

Invoking Token API to generate user tokens
Anchor
GenerateToken
GenerateToken
  

Follow the steps below to invoke Token API to generate user tokens from SAML2 assertions.

  1. Combine the consumer key and consumer secret keys as consumer-key:consumer-secret and encode the combined string using base64 using http://base64encode.org. Here's an example consumer key and secret combination: wU62DjlyDBnq87GlBwplfqvmAbAa:ksdSdoefDDP7wpaElfqvmjDue.
  2. Access the Token API using a REST client such as the WSO2 REST Client or Curl. The parameters are explained below:

    • Assuming that both the client and the API Gateway run on the same server, the Token API URL is https://localhost:8243/token.
    • payload - "grant_type=urn:ietf:params:oauth:grant-type:saml2-bearer&assertion=<SAML2_Encoded_Assertion_Token> &scope=PRODUCTION". Replace the <SAML2_Encoded_Assertion_Token> value as appropriate.
    • headers - Authorization :Basic <base64 encoded string>, Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded. Replace the <base64 encoded string> as appropriate.

    For example, use the following cURL command used to access the Token API generates an access token and a refresh token. You can use the refresh token at the time a token is renewed.

    Code Block
    curl -k -d "grant_type=urn:ietf:params:oauth:grant-type:saml2-bearer&assertion=<SAML2_Encoded Assertion>&scope=PRODUCTION" -H "Authorization: Basic SVpzSWk2SERiQjVlOFZLZFpBblVpX2ZaM2Y4YTpHbTBiSjZvV1Y4ZkM1T1FMTGxDNmpzbEFDVzhh, Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhost:8243/token
    Warning

    The Token API endpoint is specified in <APIM_HOME>/repository/deployment/server/synapse-configs/default/api/_TokenAPI_.xml file. When running the server with ports different to the default (i.e., 9443), you must update the endpoints defined inside the _TokenAPI_.xml file accordingly. See Changing the Default Ports with Offset.