If the directory/file paths specified in this guide do not exist in your WSO2 product, see Directory Structure of WSO2 Products to locate the paths applicable to your product.

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Comment: Updated typo in "Enabling SSL protocols and ciphers in ThriftAuthenticationService" step1

Given below are the various transport-level security configurations that are required for WSO2 products. See the following topics for instructions.

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Enabling TLS and disabling SSL support

The transport-level security protocol of the Tomcat server is configured in the in the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/tomcat/catalina-server.xml file. Note that the ssLprotocol attribute is set to "TLS" by default. 
See the following topics for detailed configuration options:

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Disabling SSL 

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By default, "TLS" is configured as the SSL protocol for HTTPS communication by setting the sslProtocol="TLS" attribute in the catalina-server.xml file. Specifying TLS as the SSL protocol ensures that all TLS versions, as well as SSL protocol versions, are supported. However, due to the Poodle Attack, it is necessary to make sure that only TLS protocol versions are enabled.

Note that in some WSO2 products, such as WSO2 Enterprise Integrator (ESB profile) and WSO2 API Manager, pass-thru transports are enabled. Therefore, to disable SSL in such products, the axis2.xml file stored in the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/axis2/ directory should also be configured.

Info
titlePoodle Attack:
It is necessary to disable SSL in Carbon servers because of a bug (Poodle Attack) in the SSL protocol that could expose critical data encrypted between clients and servers. The Poodle Attack makes the system vulnerable by telling the client that the server does not support the more secure TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol, and thereby forces it to connect via SSL. The effect of this bug can be mitigated by disabling the SSL protocol for your server.

Disabling SSL support for products with JDK 1.8

Follow the steps given below to disable SSL support on WSO2 Carbon based serversfor the Tomcat layer.

  1. Open the Open the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/tomcat/catalina-server.xml file. 
  2. Make a backup of the of the catalina-server.xml file and  file and stop the Carbon product server.
  3. Find the Connector configuration corresponding to TLS (usually, this connector has the port set to 9443 and the and the sslProtocol as TLS). Remove the Remove the sslProtocol="TLS" attribute and  attribute and replace it with it with sslEnabledProtocols="TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2" as shown  as shown below.

    Code Block
    <Connector protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
                    port="9443"
                    bindOnInit="false"
                    sslEnabledProtocols="TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2" 
  4. Start the server.

    Note

    In some Carbon products, such as WSO2 ESB and WSO2 API Manager, pass-thru transports are enabled. Therefore, to disable SSL in such products, the axis2.xml file stored in the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/axis2/ directory should also be configured.

To test if SSL is disabled:

  1. Download TestSSLServer.jar from here.
  2. Execute the following command to test the transport:To verify that the configurations are all set correctly, download and run the TestSSLServer.jar.

    Code Block
    java -jar TestSSLServer.jar localhost 9443 

    The output of the command after disabling SSL is shown below.

    Code Block
    Supported versions: TLSv1.0
    Deflate compression: no
    Supported cipher suites (ORDER IS NOT SIGNIFICANT):
      TLSv1.0
         RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5
         RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5
         RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA
         RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
         RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
         RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
         DHE_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA
         DHE_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA
         DHE_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA
         RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
         DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA
         RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA
         DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

If you have enabled the PassThrough transport, do the following:

Note

This is applicable for WSO2 Enterprise Integrator (ESB profile) and WSO2 API Manager products.

  1. Stop the server.

  2. Open the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/axis2/axis2.xml file and add the specified parameter under the <transportReceiver name="https" class="org.apache.synapse.transport.passthru.PassThroughHttpSSLListener"> element as well as under the <transportSender name="https" class="org.apache.synapse.transport.passthru.PassThroughHttpSSLSender"> element. If you are using JDK 1.8, you can add the following parameter:

    Code Block
    <parameter name="HttpsProtocols">TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2</parameter> 
    Info
    • If you are using JDK 1.6, add the following parameter:

      Code Block
      <parameter name="HttpsProtocols">TLSv1</parameter> 
    • If you are using JDK 1.7, add the following parameter:

      Code Block
      <parameter name="HttpsProtocols">TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2</parameter> 
    • If you are using JDK 1.8, add the following parameter:

      Code Block
      <parameter name="HttpsProtocols">TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2</parameter> 
  3. Start the server.

  4. Test the pass-through transport using the following command with the corresponding port:

    Code Block
    $ java -jar TestSSLServer.jar localhost 8243

Enabling SSL protocols and ciphers in ThriftAuthenticationService

Do the following to enable SSL protocols and ciphers in the ThriftAuthenticationService.

  1. Add the following configurations in the <CARBON_SERVER>/repository/conf/identity/thrift-authentication.xml file as sub-elements of the root <Server> element.

    Code Block
    <SSLEnabledProtocols>TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2</SSLEnabledProtocols>
    <Ciphers>TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</Ciphers>
    Tip

    Tip: You can also add the following additional cipher suites to the <Ciphers> property if JCE Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy is enabled in Java.

    Code Block
    TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA384,TLS_DHE_RSA_WIT

    If you wish to remove TLSv1 or TLSv1.1, you can do so by removing them as values from the <SSLEnabledProtocols> property.

  2. Restart the server. 

Enabling TLSv1.1/TLSv1.2 for products with JDK 1.7

The TLS protocol is set to TLSv1.0 (by default), in WSO2 products running on JDK 1.7. You cannot configure this using the catalina-server.xml file or the axis2.xml file as we do with products based on JDK 1.7. Therefore, you need to enable TLSv1.1 and TLSv1.2 globally by setting a system property.

  1. Download the following artifacts:
  2. Copy the wso2-ssl-socket-factory-provider-1.0.0.jar file to the <PRODUCT_HOME>/lib/endorsed directory.
  3. Copy the wso2-ssl-security file to the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/ directory.
  4. Open the product startup script (wso2server.sh for Linux, or wso2server.bat for Windows), which is stored in the <PRODUCT_HOME>/bin directory.

  5. Add the following system properties to the script:

    Code Block
    -Djdk.tls.client.protocols="TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2" \
    -Djava.security.properties="$CARBON_HOME/repository/conf/wso2-ssl-security" \
  6. Start the server.

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disablingweakciphers
disablingweakciphers
Disabling weak ciphers

A cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption. When you set the set the sslprotocol of your  of your server to TLS, the TLS and the default ciphers get enabled without considering the strength of the ciphers. This is a security risk as weak ciphers, also known as EXPORT ciphers, can make your system vulnerable to attacks such as the Logjam attack on Diffieon Diffie-Hellman key Hellman key exchange. The Logjam attack is also called the Man-in-the-Middle attack. It downgrades your connection's encryption to a lessa less-secured level secured level (e.g., 512 bit) that can be decrypted with sufficient processing power.

To prevent these types of security attacks, it is encouraged to disable the weak ciphers. You can enable only the ciphers that you want the server to support in a comma-separated list in the in the ciphers  attribute  attribute. Also, if you do not add this cipher attribute or keep it blank, the browser will support all the SSL ciphers by JSSE. This will enable the weak ciphers.

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Disabling weak ciphers for the Tomcat transport

  1. Open the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/tomcat/catalina-server.xml  file.
  2. Make a backup of theof the catalina-server.xml  file and   file and stop the WSO2 product server.
  3. Add the Add the cipher attribute to   attribute to the existing configuration in thein the catalina-server.xml file by  file by adding the list of ciphers that you want your server to support as followsas follows: ciphers="<cipher-name>,<cipher-name>". See the example given below.

    Code Block
    For Tomcat version 7.0.59 and JDK version 1.7:
    ciphers="TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA"  
    
    For Tomcat version 7.0.59 and JDK version 1.8:
    ciphers="TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256" 

    See the list of of supported cipher suites.

  4. Start the server.
  5. To verify that the configurations are all set correctly, download and run the the TestSSLServer.jar.

    Code Block
    $ java -jar TestSSLServer.jar localhost 9443
    Note

    Note the following when you run TestSSLServer.jar:

    • The "Supported cipher suites" section in the output does not contain any EXPORT ciphers.

    • When you use the supported cipher suites listed here, the BEAST attack status will be shown as vulnerable. Note that this is a client-side vulnerability caused by the TLSv1 protocol. You can make the BEAST status protected by removing TLSv1, which will make clients with TLSv1 unusable. Therefore, it is recommended to fixed tofixed this from the client side.

Disables weak ciphers for the PassThrough transport

Remove any weak ciphers from the PassThrough transport and ensure that the server does not accept connections using those weak ciphers. The PassThrough transport is configured using the axis2.xml file (stored in the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/axis2/  directory). 

  1. Open the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/axis2/axis2.xml  file.
  2. Make a backup of the axis2.xml  file and stop the WSO2 product server.
  3. You need to add the PreferredCiphers parameter under the "Transport Ins (Listeners)" section along with the list of relevant cipher suites.

    Code Block
    <parameter name="PreferredCiphers">TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA,TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256,TLS_DHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256</parameter>
  4. Start the server.
  5. Test the pass-through transport using the following command with the corresponding port:

    Code Block
    $ java -jar TestSSLServer.jar localhost 8243


Info
iconfalse

From Firefox 39.0 onwards, the browser does not allow to access Web sites that support DHE with keys less than 1023 bits (not just DHE_EXPORT). 768/1024 bits are considered to be too small and vulnerable to attacks if the hacker has enough computing resources. 

Tip
iconfalse

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To use AES-256, the Java JCE Unlimited Strength Jurisdiction Policy files need to be installed. Download them from http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html.

Tip

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iconfalse

From Java 7, you must set the jdk.certpath.disabledAlgorithms property in the <JAVA_HOME>/jre/lib/security/java.security file to jdk.certpath.disabledAlgorithms=MD2, DSA, RSA keySize < 2048. It rejects all algorithms that have key sizes less than 2048 for MD2, DSA and RSA.

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Note

...

: This tip is not applicable when you are disabling weak ciphers in WSO2 Identity Server.

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If you have enabled the PassThrough transport, do the following:

Note

This is applicable for WSO2 Enterprise Service Bus and WSO2 API Manager products.

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Stop the server.

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Changing the server name in HTTP response headers

By default, all WSO2 products pass "WSO2 Carbon Server" as the server value in HTTP headers when sending HTTP responses. This means that information about the WSO2 product stack will be exposed through HTTP responses. It is recommended to change this by configuring the server name in the catalina-server.xml file.

  1. Open the <PRODUCT_HOME>/repository/conf/axis2tomcat/axis2catalina-server.xml  file and based on the JDK version you are using add the specified parameter under the <transportReceiver name="https" class="org.apache.synapse.transport.passthru.PassThroughHttpSSLListener"> element as well as under the <transportSender name="https" class="org.apache.synapse.transport.passthru.PassThroughHttpSSLSender"> element.
    • If you are using JDK 1.6, add the following parameter:

      Code Block
      <parameter name="HttpsProtocols">TLSv1</parameter> 
    • If you are using JDK 1.7, add the following parameter:

      Code Block
      <parameter name="HttpsProtocols">TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2</parameter> 
  2. Start the server.

  3. Test the pass-through transport using the following command with the corresponding port:

    Code Block$ java -jar TestSSLServer.jar localhost 8243.
  4. Add a new server name using the server property (under the relevant Tomcat connector configuration):

    Code Block
    server="WSO2 Carbon Server"
Info

See the Security Guidelines for Production Deployment for the full list of security-related recommendations for WSO2 products.