Apply security updates
Apply all the security patches relevant to your product version. If your WSO2 product version is supported by WSO2 Update Manager (WUM), you need to use WUM to get the latest fixes.
Change default keystores
Change the default key stores and create new keys for all the cryptographic operations. WSO2 products by default come with a self-signed SSL key. Since these keys are public, it is recommended to configure your own keys for security purposes. Consider the following guidelines when creating the keystores:
See the recommendations for using keystores in WSO2 products for information.
|Encrypt passwords in configuration files|
WSO2 products use a tool called Secure Vault to encrypt the plain-text passwords in configuration files.
See Securing Passwords in Configuration Files for instructions.
Change default ports
All the default ports used by WSO2 products are listed in Default Ports of WSO2 Products. For example, the default HTTPS port is 9443 and the HTTP port is 9763. Also, Axis2 services are exposed over the following ports: 8243 and 8280.
To change a default port, update the
Enable read-only access to external user stores (LDAPs etc.)
If your WSO2 product is connecting to an external user store, such as Microsoft Active Directory, for the purpose of reading and retrieving user information, be sure to enable read-only access to that user store.
Always communicate (with external user stores) over TLS
All connections from your WSO2 product to external databases, userstores (LDAP), or other services, should be over TLS, to ensure adequate network-level protection. Therefore, be sure to use external systems (user stores, databases) that are TLS-enabled.
Connect to data stores using a less privileged user
When connecting the WSO2 product to external databases or user stores (LDAP), be sure to go through a user who does not have permission to change the data store's schema. Be sure not to use the root user of the data store because all permissions are generally granted to the root user.
Configure strong HTTP(S) security
To have strong transport-level security, use TLS 1.2 and disable SSL, TLS 1.0 and 1.1. The TLS protocol and strong ciphers are configured for an HTTP connector in the catalina
Remove weak ciphers for PassThrough transport
Remove any weak ciphers from the PassThrough transport and ensure that the server does not accept connections using those weak ciphers. The PassThrough transport is configured using the
See Configuring the PassThrough Transport for instructions.
Update the HTTP Response header "Server" value
By default, all WSO2 products pass "WSO2 Carbon Server" as the server value in HTTP headers when sending HTTP responses. This means that information about the WSO2 product stack will be exposed through HTTP responses. It is recommended to change this by configuring the server name in the
See Configuring Transport Level Security for instructions.
Enabling HTTP Strict Transport Security Headers (HSTS)
Be sure that HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) is enabled for all the applications deployed in your WSO2 server. This includes the management console, and any other web applications and/or Jaggery applications.
Note that (for products based on Carbon 4.4.11 or later versions) HSTS is disabled for the applications with which the product is shipped by default. This is because HSTS validation can interrupt the development processes by validating signatures of self-signed certificates.
See the topic on Enabling HTTP Strict Transport Security Headers for instructions.
Preventing browser caching
If there are dynamic pages in your application with sensitive information, you need to prevent browser caching. This can be done by making sure that the applications deployed in your server will return the relevant HTTP response headers.
Note that cache prevention headers are enabled for the applications with which the product is shipped by default. Therefore, you need to manually enable cache prevention headers only for all the new applications that you deploy in your server.
See the topic on Preventing browser caching for instructions.
Increase Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman Key size
Before starting the server, open the product startup script (
Disable client-initiated renegotiation
Before starting the server, open the product startup script (
Enable HostName Verification
If your product is using Carbon Kernel 4.4.17 or a later version, make sure that hostname verification is enabled in the product startup script (
In Carbon versions prior to 4.4.17, be sure that hostname verification is enabled by setting the following property to
See Enabling HostName Verification for instructions.
Enable additional XSS Protection
XSS attacks are prevented on the latest WSO2 products by default. This is due to output encoding of the displaying values. However, if additional protection is required, an input validation valve can be configured.
See Mitigating Cross Site Scripting Attacks for instructions.
Increase JSESSIONID length
If required, increase the session ID length by changing the
Change default admin credentials
All WSO2 products have the Administrator account configured by default. The default user nameand password of the administrator account is "admin". To change the administrator credentials, you need to first sign in tothe management console of the product as "admin", and then use the Change Password option under Home->Configure->User Management->Users in the navigator.
See Changing a Password for more information on how to change the password of the administrator.
Restrict access to the management console
Make sure that the permission for signing into the management console is granted only to the users that need to use the management console. For example, in products such as WSO2 Identity Server and WSO2 API Manager, the majority of users only need to login to the connected service providers via the WSO2 product. Therefore, such users should not have permission to log into the management console.
You can make sure that only administrative users have access to the product's management console. Further, instead of granting all permission to one administrator, you can distribute the responsibilities among administrators by assigning different permissions for conducting various tasks.
See Managing Users, Roles and Permissions for instructions.
|Disable the TryIt Tool in the management console|
Be sure to disable the Try It tool of the management console in your production environment by adding the following system property to the
The Try It tool is useful for testing purposes in the ESB profile of WSO2 Enterprise Integrator but it is not recommended to be used in a production environment.
Enable log rotation and monitoring
Ensure that you have a relevant log rotation scheme to manage logs. Log4J properties for WSO2 products can be configured in the
See Monitoring Logsfor details on how to configure logging details in WSO2 products.
Prevent Log Forging
Log forging can be prevented by appending a UUID to the log message.
See Monitoring Logsfor more information on configuring the log4j.properties file.
Set appropriate JVM parameters
The recommended JDK version is JDK 1.7 or 1.8. See the installation pre-requisites for more information.
For JDK 1.7, set the appropriate Heap and Permgen values for the JVM based on your deployment scenario. These can be set in the
|Securing Carbon Applications|
See Securing Carbon Applications for information.