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This topic is regarding sessions in the WSO2 Identity Server (IS) and the process of enabling session persistence for these sessions. This is particularly useful when the remember me option is selected when logging into either the service provider or the WSO2 Identity Server.

Understanding sessions in the WSO2 Identity Server

When you log in to the Web application using WSO2 Identity Server, a single sign-on (SSO) session is created by the Identity Server for the user of the application. Also, as the user logs in to the Web application, there is session created in the Web application itself for the user. These are two separate sessions and they are not synchronized with each other.

For an example, if the Web application has a session timeout of 20 minutes and the WSO2 IS SSO session timeout is 5 minutes, the application users will not see the login page up to 20 minutes. That is because WSO2 IS is not invalidating the session by force on the Web application.

If the Web application session timeout is 5 minutes and the WSO2 IS SSO session timeout is 20 minutes, the users will not see the login page up to 20 minutes. This is because even when the Web application container session timeout after 5 minutes, the session was kept alive since WSO2 IS SSO session is still alive. The user will not be redirected to the login screen of the SP until the WSO2 IS SSO session is invalidated.

WSO2 Identity Server creates separate SSO session for SSO login and it is different from the session that is created when you log in to the Identity Server management console.

When end user logs in through the WSO2 Identity Server for the service provider application (using SAML2 SSO, OpenID Connect, Passive STS, etc.), the Identity Server creates a SSO session for end users and a cookie that is related to the created SSO session is set to the user’s browser.

This cookie can be seen as commonauthId. It is set to the user’s browser with the hostname of WSO2 Identity Server instance and the value of the commonauthId cookie is the SSO session identifier. When SSO session is created in the WSO2 Identity Server, the session is put into the session cache and persisted to the database. To persist it in to the database, you must enable the session persistence.

 Click here to read about the importance of persisting the session.

SSO sessions have been stored in an in-memory cache. It is recommended to persist the SSO session due to following reasons.

  • If you are running a single WSO2 Identity Server instance and the server is restarted, all SSO session would be removed. If you have multiple nodes of WSO2 instances, It is not guaranteed that you can recover all the sessions. Although the cache is distributed, it is not 100% split to each node.
  • Cache has a limit. If there are large number of SSO sessions, memory can be high and server performance may reduce. So usually the cache is evicted after a given number of entries (by default 10000 entries). Therefore, some SSO session can be evicted from caches when there are large number of user logins.
  • When there is a clustered development, if you have no persistence, you need to rely completely on the distributed cache. However, if you have persistence, you can rely on it as well. This increases the reliability of the overall system.

In WSO2 Identity Server has multiple local caching usage in different layers to improve the product performance. But most of the caches are ready to persist in the database if it is required.

There are three type of data objects that are persisted in the database.

1. Session Data

Once the user get authenticated over WSO2 Identity Server, it will create a Session data object which is stored the authenticated user and the other authentication flow details. This will store in the database to share across the cluster nodes.

2. Operational Data

This is covered the same session data as in above but the outdated records. Ex: Once user get authenticated, there will be a record for login status to that session id. Then again that user get logout from the system, we are not removing the above record from the table and instead of that we add a new record to the same session id with status called logout. So the valid record is the last one and all the other records under that session id will be outdated. Those outdated records are belong to the Operational Data.

3. Temporary Data

In authentication flow, there are many temporary data object that will keep for few seconds only. We keep these in cache. But to make consistent the cluster environment without having the local cache, we store that also in the same database table that we stored the session data as in above.

When we consider about the data persistence which is belong to the critical path and high concurrency situation, we had to further improved the following key aspects as well.

Data Clean-Up

Since above data are collected over the authentication flow, it will grow the database with that data very frequently. So we had to managed few tasks to clean the data in the database for some given conditions.

Task Pool

We are storing above data within a critical path which is control the authentication. So we have introduced a pooling mechanism to put the data persistence tasks into that pool and continue the critical path without blocking it.

How this will work in clustered environment.

Even in the clustered environment, we don’t recommend to enable the Hazelcast distributed caching for the Identity data. So in this case also we have to rely only on the local cache. And this case specially we have to disable the pool by ‘PoolSize’ is set to 0. Because otherwise there can be some data inconsistency situation which the one node get late to update the database before the other node try to access the same data from database. Even we use the local cache here, it will trigger the cache invalidation notification system to consistent the data among the nodes in the cluster when the data are get delete or update, but not for adding the data.

The following configuration found in the <IS_HOME>/repository/conf/identity/identity.xml file, under the the Server and JDBCPersistenceManager elements is used to enable session persistence. 

		<!--Instead of deleting all the records at once, we are deleting the records in chunks to prevent
		the -->
		<!--possible deadlock and lock scenarios. The following property defines the chunk size.-->

The following table describes the elements of the configurations mentioned above.

Configuration elementDescription


This enables the persistence of session data. Therefore, this must be configured to true if you wish to enable session persistence.


Setting this to true enables persistence of temporary caches that are created within an authentication request.


By ‘PoolSize’ is equal to 0 mean, it is disabled and then the authentication flow will be blocked until this relevant data persistence task get done. To execute the persistence task in asynchronously, we can set >0 value to this. Based on the pool size, the system will create the task parallel to execute the persistence task that was in the queue.


This section of the configuration is related to the cleaning up of session data.


Selecting true here enables the cleanup task and ensures that it starts running.


This is the timeout value (in minutes) of the session data that is removed by the cleanup task. The default value is 2 weeks.


This is the time period (in minutes) that the cleanup task would run. The default value is 1 day. This is used for both session data cleanup and operation data cleanup through the same task.

DeleteChunkSizeThis value determines (limits) the number of rows that will be deleted in a single delete query statement. The default value is 50000. If the number of rows to delete is larger than this limit, the DELETE statement is repeated until the number of affected rows is less than the LIMIT value.
OperationDataCleanUpThis section of the configuration is related to the cleaning up of operation data.

About size of Delete Chunks

The value of delete chunk size depends on various factors such as:
- The size of a row of the table. You can calculate this by adding bytes needed for each column, and some control information per record.
- The underlying physical storage. e.g Normal SATA spinning Disk, SSD, SCSI, Amazon S3/EBS etc.
- The type of the database engine (e.g. MySql, MSSql, Oracle). Each one has different data organization mechanism in physical storage.
- OS where the DB server runs.

The best way to calculate the chunk size it is to run a sample program that calculates the size. To do this, you may need to insert a large number of artificial records on the table and run a deletion query with incremental chunk sizes. Then you can plot the result in a table to see which is the optimal chunk size for a specific configuration.

Also, this chunk size configuration may change later if you decide to upgrade the DB cluster, their storage etc. Hence it is not a static value. The optimal value needs to be measured each time you do a change in your database infrastructure.

Note: Usually, the optimum chunk size is power of 2 and typically multiple of 512. This can be used for incremental values.

Note: To work with Single Sign-On you must have session persistence enabled.

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